Plastic microbeads are no longer an acceptable addition to cosmetic products and are now banned in many countries.
Although accounting for less than 2% of the total use of plastic microbeads, the cosmetics industry was perceived to be a major culprit and it has been actively replacing them with suitable alternatives.
Their principal use was as mild abrasives for cleansers and exfoliating scrubs, and alternative methods and materials are the focus of this feature.
Skin desquamation is the shedding of corneocytes from the stratum corneum (SC), and is part of the self-renewal and maintenance of the skin.
Ageing and certain skin diseases can disturb this process leading to a decrease in desquamation rate, resulting in an increase in thickness of the SC and in skin scale formation.
Desquamation or exfoliation of epidermal layers of human skin induces an increased rate of epidermal cell renewal, and is achieved through