John Woodruff gives the lowdown from SCS Formulate 2009's Source Presentations
Concurrent with the SCS Formulate exhibition were Knowledge Seminars given by experts within the industry to subscribing delegates and Source Presentations given by representatives from ingredient suppliers as a series of free presentations describing particular ingredients. The following is a brief round-up of some of the Source Presentations. These covered a wide range of subjects but anti-ageing ideas and everything natural were well represented.
Regular attendees of Formulate are now familiar with the quick-fire way in which Pauline Ayres of S. Black manages to cover trends within personal care in just 20 minutes. Under the heading of decorative cosmetics we were told how developments in mineral make-up and fashion colours were being met by new iron oxide colours, pearls and interference colours and we were introduced to RonaFlair White Sapphire [INCI: Synthetic sapphire], a pure white filler in the form of alumina platelets exhibiting gemstone qualities combined with superior slip, adhesion and transparency.
Trends seen in hair care were to combat ageing and hair loss, dullness, dandruff and skin disorders while treatments for sensitive scalps, coloured hair and dry and damaged hair were also popular. To provide for these Ayres described the role of new silicone compounds from Dow Corning and conditioning actives derived from Brassicacea supplied by Inolex. In skin care moisturisation is still the most sought after effect plus anti-ageing treatments, both instant and long-term, and among the many ingredients listed by Ayres peptides from Lipotec and DSM appeared particularly suitable for these applications. Body care and sun care actives were presented and Ayres finished with emulsifier and preservative systems and rheology modifiers.
Throughout the presentation Ayres mentioned the desire for natural ingredients and showed that many from S. Black had Ecocert approval. Continuing the natural theme Andrea Tomlinson of Cognis chose Formulating greener skincare as the title of her talk. Cognis uses a green leaf system with four green leaves representing materials from 100% natural, renewable feedstocks that have only been physically purified by water, alcohol or energy. Three green leaves are awarded to materials from renewable feedstocks that have been chemically processed using a catalyst or reaction aid and two green leaves are given to materials where at least 70% of the carbon atoms are from natural, renewable feedstock, but if less than 70% it is only awarded one green leaf.
By combining materials of known degree of origin it is possible to create products with credible natural claims, from Eco-passion with four leaves to Eco-image with only one. Tomlinson listed a number of materials with three green leaves then showed how emulsifiers and emollients could be selected to provide satisfactory products with natural claims and illustrated her claim with formulations where a minimum of the carbon atoms present were from suitable natural resources.
One problem with creating products with natural claims is that of finding suitable surfactants. David Anderson of Colonial Chemical presented non-ethoxylated emulsifiers for oil-in-water emulsions. The first one described was cetyl phosphate, an oil-soluble long chain organic phosphate ester supplied as a free acid in flake form. It is generally used as a co-emulsifier with low HLB nonionics, and is non-irritating to skin. Cetyl phosphate is easily dissolved into either phase during emulsion processing and can be neutralised in-situ with various cations. Anderson said that cetyl phosphate will effectively increase viscosity and aid in the stabilisation of emulsion systems and display enhanced shear, heat and freeze/thaw stability.
Other emulsifiers described by Anderson included potassium cetyl phosphate as a water-soluble emulsifier designed to be used as a co-emulsifier with low HLB surfactants. Colafax CPO is a mix of potassium cetyl phosphate with hydrogenated palm glycerides that shows good emulsifying ability with both polar and non-polar oils and is especially suitable for manufacturing emulsions with high oil content. Colalipid ST is a cationic material comprising stearamidopropyl PG-dimonium chloride phosphate with cetyl alcohol and has a unique skin feel while Colalipid DLO is dimer dilinoleamidopropyl PG-dimonium chloride phosphate; another cationic emulsifier with excellent barrier properties making it suitable for barrier creams and diaper liners.
Estelle Chevreton of Aston Chemicals chose the term fusion cosmetics to describe formulations said to blur the line between skin care, sun care and colour cosmetics. In describing a daily moisturiser with SPF15, an exfoliating cleansing milk, an instant brightening balm, a sparkling lip gloss with UV protection and a mineral powder make-up Chevreton showed how multifunctional products could be created without loss of efficacy or aesthetic appeal. Typical among those presented was an exfoliating cleansing milk described as a rich creamy emulsion that could be easily rinsed off, cleansing like a foaming scrub but moisturising like a cream. The emulsifier was a mixture of cetearyl olivate and sorbitan olivate; the surfactants were sodium PEG-7 olive oil carboxylate with shea butter amidopropyl betaine; the exfoliant scrub particles were Bambusa arundinacea (bamboo) stem powder and extra appeal was added by incorporating sweet almond oil encapsulated in agar.
Finding efficient emulsifiers that meet the criteria demanded by Ecocert and other natural certification bodies has always been difficult, but now the need has been identified more are becoming available. Patrick Gonry of Gova Research introduced Neocare P3R-0812, a material with Ecocert approval derived from castor oil. It is a mix of polyglyceryl-3 polyricinoleate and polyglyceryl-3 ricinoleate and has an HLB of 3.5, making it suitable for the preparation of water-in-oil emulsions. Gonry illustrated his talk with extensive graphs showing the viscosity obtained when preparing emulsions using Neocare P3R-0812 with various oils and esters and at differing concentrations. He showed the effect of adding electrolytes and alcohol at different levels to a standardised formula and discussed ways of ensuring emulsion stability using co-emulsifiers and emulsion stabilisers where necessary.
For some reason silicones are not acceptable to many striving to create natural product formulations but this did not deter Tony O’Lenick of Siltech from entitling his presentation Greening with silicones, by which silicones are chosen to minimise their presence and maximize their effect in cosmetic formulations. The concept is to use structure function relationships to make products that are efficient at low concentrations. A product’s surface tension affects the way that cosmetic products such as lipsticks, creams, lotions and gels and even shampoos spread on the skin or hair and generally a lowering of surface tension results in improved application. Silicones not only have low surface tension but they also lower that of the materials in which they are soluble. O’Lenick described the properties of PEG-8 dimethicone; an amphiphilic compound that is soluble in both oils and water. Amphiphilic compounds are surface tension lowering and exhibit wetting, emulsification, foaming and gelling properties, depending upon their specific structure. By selecting the optimum compound, multifunctional effects can be obtained with minimal inclusion of the silicone derivative. He also described alkyl dimethicones that are oil-soluble, lowering their surface tension and imparting a soft silky silicone feel to the mixture.
A different O’Lenick, in this case Kevin, spoke on behalf of Surfatech and took natural high definition polymers as his theme. These need to be REACH compliant by being formed from pre-registered monomers, be based on natural raw materials and be free of vinyl reactive materials. O’Lenick described the process of molecular modelling by which Surfatech was able to focus on every detail of the molecule in order to achieve the properties required. Citric acid and higher chain length fatty alcohols were cross-linked with a reagent derived from corn to produce the CosmoSurf series of multi-domain polymers. Multi-domain products have two types of groups within the molecule; one is solid and the other liquid at ambient temperatures. They are thixotropic and when applied the liquid domain collapses allowing the solid to spread on the skin, imparting a unique skin feel. They impart barrier and waterproofing properties and can boost SPF results.
Foremost among the author’s personal list of favourite speakers is Barbara Brockway of IMCD. At Formulate 2009 the title of her talk was More bangs for your bucks, or how some ingredients can make other actives more effective and therefore more affordable, in which Brockway explored the potential of synergy. The process of bringing new actives to market is very expensive so their price is high. Brockway broke down the reasons for including some of these in a formulation and proposed satisfying all the claims required by using synergistic blends. As an example hyaluronic acid (HA) is an excellent moisturiser that helps skin heal with less scarring and low molecular weight HA will encourage HA synthesis in skin and it also imparts a nice feel and slip to a formula. If sufficient HA is added to satisfy the biological requirements of HA synthesis and healing properties glycerine can be added for moisturising and polyquaternium-51 for slip. A synergistic mixture of these plus urea, sodium PCA and trehalose is marketed by Active Concepts as AC Moisture Complex Advanced.
Another approach suggested was the application of self-heating products to improve the efficacy of active materials. Suggested actives were Salvona’s SalSphere, HydroSal, MicroSal and MultiSal microsphere systems that can be made so that they are triggered by heat to release their contents. These vehicles will deliver actives for shine, repair, hair regrowth, moisturisation, colour retention and fragrance. Natural Hot are self-heating ingredients based on anhydrous calcium chloride and magnesium sulfate available from Distinctive Cosmetic Ingredients that release a burst of heat as soon as they are hydrated. The microspheres are encouraged to release their active content more quickly and more effectively by combining them in self-heating formulations. Other materials with synergistic effects included tourmaline powder and heat shock proteins derived from cultured bacteria and yeast.
Materials that slow down the skin ageing process were well represented. Mike Farwick of Evonik discussed a multifunctional ingredient trade named Tego Pep 417, a pure tetrapeptide with anti-ageing properties for skin care formulations. It activates collagen production and therefore stimulates dermal filling, repair and renewal mechanisms of the skin. Tetrapeptide-17 is based on the skin’s own structures and formulations that include it at between 0.5% and 5% show increased elasticity, a decreased volume of wrinkles and fine lines and a reduction of skin roughness. Farwick also presented TEGO Cosmo LSG, a water-soluble, natural beta-glucan biopolymer obtained via fermentation. Due to the low molecular weight its inherent thickening properties are reduced and the usage concentration in cosmetic formulations can be increased. It has high water-binding capacity, soothing properties and a positive effect on the skin’s barrier and it imparts a silky skin feel on topical application.
Solabia’s Marie-Laure Huc described the effect of skin microcirculation in the prevention of cutaneous ageing. Momentive Performance Materials’ Sabine Nienstedt described modern optical anti-ageing ingredients for skin care and Infinitec Activos’ Alfonso Hidalgo described neuropeptides as an exciting new concept for skin care. EnviroDerm Services’ Helen Taylor discussed ways of proving the effectiveness of formulations in her talk on advances in skin analysis. A wide range of measurements are available including hydration, sebum, pH, elasticity, transepidermal water loss, colour and blood perfusion, and new techniques to measure gloss and wrinkles were described.
POLYMERS & BEYOND
Rheology modifiers were the subject of the talk by Sonja Gehm of Clariant who described the Aristoflex polymers. These are pre-neutralised and are used as thickening aids and emulsifiers. They exhibit constant viscosity and yield value over a pH range of 4 to 9 and are not sensitive to UV light or high shear mixing. Four grades were described: HMB [INCI: Ammonium acryloyldimethyltaurate/beheneth-25 methacrylate crosspolymer] is recommended for high oil content o/w emulsion; BLV for thin emulsions for spray application; and AVS for good viscosity at high pH.
Emmanuelle Merat of Seppic discussed the properties of Sepiplus S as a versatile, concentrated liquid polymer for that ultra smooth feeling. It is a mixture of hydroxyethylacrylate/sodium acryloyl-dimethyl taurate copolymer, polyisobutene and PEG-7 trimethylolpropane coconut ether with thickening and emulsifying properties that is electrolyte tolerant, stable over a wide pH range and is compatible with DHA.
Unusually for cosmetic conferences there was little about sun protection except for the presentation given by Christina Zech of DSM Nutritional Products who described Parsol TX and Parsol TX-50AB. Parsol TX is supplied as a fine white powder consisting of nanoparticles of microfine titanium dioxide, 20nm in diameter and coated with dimethicone to render them hydrophobic. The coating inhibits discolouration caused by titanium dioxide in the presence of ascorbic acid or ascorbyl palmitate and prevents the photodegradation commonly found with BMDBM when used with titanium dioxide sun filters. Parsol TX-50AB is a 50% dispersion in C12-C15 alkyl benzoate. It provides UVB and UVA protection and the coating provides the same useful properties as with the powder version. Zech showed how the dispersion remained stable without settling or sedimentation and claims a 12 month shelf-life.
There were many other materials presented. Bhaven Chavan of Croda Europe discussed the moisturising effects of isostearyl isostearate and suggested an interesting concept whereby it interacts with the lipids of the stratum corneum, stabilising them into a more tightly packed orthorhombic bilayer structure. Nathalie Verot of Seppic described Voluform as a new plumping active ingredient to remodel curves. Its expected INCI name is palmitoyl isoleucine and it is targeted at filling in crow’s feet, hollow cheeks and sag lines on the face and to plump out the bust. Skin firming and remodelling was also the subject of the presentation by Leo Hochegger of DSM Nutritional Products who described the new peptide trade named Syn-Glycan.
At the end of the formulation process the next hurdle is that of scale-up. Too often we are forced from a laboratory size glass beaker into a full sized process vessel, which has totally different mixing and cooling characteristics. However, much more help can be obtained from miniature, laboratory scale production plant and Alexander Lukas from the research department at Ekato Systems explained the advantages of this approach to optimising mixing and dispersing equipment in cosmetics manufacture. According to Lukas, critical process parameters may be heating and cooling times, homogenisation, blending of additives, removal of air and equipment cleaning. For many cosmetic products individual phases must be heated or cooled and heating and cooling times have a direct impact on manufacturing times. Similarly, propeller stirrers or laboratory homogenisers supply little information about the homogenisation process that will be required in a production environment.
Lucas suggested that better results would be obtained by using laboratory installations that match almost exactly the design and construction of existing production machines, but are much smaller. Ekato Systems offers laboratory scale installations in 3 and 6 litre sizes as standalone equipment. They consist principally of a mixing vessel with stirrer and homogeniser installed which is used for dosing and mixing of the different components. This allows processes to be developed in the laboratory that can be transferred directly to final production equipment. For further tests or the production of larger batches there are 25 and 50 litre installations available and this equipment is available for hire. Algorithms required are supplied by experienced engineers who will also train operators.
Other presentation topics included natural colours and preservatives and hair care.