The following abstracts illustrate ways of suspending particulates in a shower gel, improving delivery of fragrance from surfactant-based products, using yogurt powder to support the skin’s natural defence against pathogenic organisms and creating an all-natural shower gel.
1. Personal liquid cleanser product with particulate bicarbonate suspension phase
US Patent 5,824,324
Application No 08/744,526
Granted 20 October 1998
Assignee Church & Dwight
The patent describes a fluid detergent formulation suitable for application as a personal cleanser for bath or shower usage.
A feature is a stable suspension phase of particulate alkali metal bicarbonate, which functions as a buffering agent and provides deodorising, exfoliating and water- softening benefits for skin conditioning.
The composition comprises a surfactant; an alkali metal bicarbonate; a suspending agent; a thickening agent; and a hydrophilic silicone-polymer. The composition has a pH between about 7-10.5 and a viscosity up to 145,000 centipoises.
Sodium bicarbonate is the preferred salt and (because it is in suspension) a large proportion can be incorporated without the limitation of solubility. The salt also serves as a mild exfoliant when in contact with the skin surface.
The hydrophilic silicone-polymer has a gelling effect, is a foam modifier and contributes to a smooth skin feel.
Preferred is dimethicone copolyol. The surfactant combination is typically sodium laureth sulphate with cocamidopropyl betaine.
A second gelling agent is hydroxymethyl cellulose and ethylene glycol monostearate is incorporated as part of the suspending agent; it also imparts a sheen to the composition.
2. Multiphase surfactant fragrance composition
US Patent 10,106,763
Application No 14/401,814
Granted 23 October 2018
In surfactant-based cleansing compositions a large portion of the fragrance can be solubilised by the surfactant and not released during application of the product.
The fragrance release from a single component composition containing surfactant and fragrance can be boosted by separating the fragrance and surfactant into a multi-component composition.
The patent describes a multi- phase composition with surfactant and fragrance at least partially separated in different phases that will deliver a burst of fragrance when incorporated in a shower gel or bath additive.
The type of surfactant can be any combination of anionic, amphoteric, zwitterionic, cationic or non-ionic surfactants. Preferred is sodium laureth sulphate with cocamidopropyl betaine.
The composition can be structured by any known structuring agent including polymers, gums or celluloses, or by salt, however the examples all show Carbopol Aqua SF-1 polymer, (INCI: Acrylates copolymer).
The first phase comprises at least 75% of the total surfactant and the second phase is at least 75% of the total fragrance content of the composition. Optionally, additional phases can be present and the weight ratio of the first phase to the second phase can be any desired ratio.
The multi-phase composition can separate the phases by containing each of the phases in separate chambers in a multi-chamber container that allows for simultaneous dispensing of the phases together.
Alternatively, the phases can be in physical contact with each other and each structured to have a yield stress that does not allow the phases to mix.
3. Use of cosmetic cleaning compositions as a prebiotic
US Patent 10,085,934
Application No 15/376,204
Granted 2 October 2018
The applicants explained that a multitude of different bacteria reside on the human skin surface, some of which are pathogenic and must be considered harmful. Other skin microbes provide a positive action and are known as saprophytic bacteria.
Their presence inhibits the reproduction of harmful bacteria, and as a result they exert a protective function on the skin. It is therefore desirable to influence the skin flora to the effect that the growth of pathogenic bacteria is reduced and the growth of saprophytic bacteria is favoured.
Cosmetic cleansing agents usually include surfactants, which due to their irritating effect can adversely influence the skin flora and are therefore not recommended for use on blemished skin or skin suffering from acne.
Claimed is a prebiotic composition that includes spray- dried yogurt powder, at least one anionic surfactant and at least one fatty acid soap that may be used for inhibiting the growth and the physiological activity of undesired skin bacteria and for supporting the growth of desired skin bacteria.
The composition, when created as a shower gel or personal cleansing liquid, preferably includes 3-8% anionic surfactant; 1-6% amphoteric surfactant; up to about 2% of a cationic polymer; and up to about 3% spray-dried yogurt powder.
Alternatively, the composition may also contain up to 75% of a fatty acid soap and be in the form of a solid cleansing bar.The anionic surfactant is preferably one known for mildness, such as a glutamate or sarcosinate.
The preferred amphoteric is cocamidopropyl betaine or coco betaine and the preferred cationic polymer is polyquaternium-7. The preferred fatty acid soap is sodium olivate or the sodium salt of palm kernel acids.
Talc is an optional additive that, in combination with the yogurt powder, is said to improve skin suppleness and moisture.
Other preferred additives are coco glucoside and PEG-40 hydrogenated castor oil. Glycerin up to 5% and vitamins, plant extracts, milks and juices may also be included plus preservatives, chelating agents and fragrance.
The applicants claim that if the composition is used as a shower gel, facial cleanser or soap it results in a selective elimination of undesirable skin bacteria, without adversely influencing the desirable skin bacteria.
Moreover, it has the advantage that the skin is nourished, moisturised and soothed, which results in a general improvement of the complexion, especially in the case of blemished skin.
4. Natural formulations
US Patent 10,064,881
Application No 13/992,309
Granted 4 September 2018
Assignee Y&B Mother’s Choice
The applicants claim that the composition comprises a naturally- obtained saponin material, at least one naturally-obtained thickening agent, at least one naturally-obtained humectant, at least one naturally-obtained preservative and at least one naturally-obtained additive.
They also claim that each of the components is obtained from a natural source in a substantially unmodified form and may be organic or aqueous extracts and/or minerals and electrolytes, or fermentation products.
Provided is an all-natural foaming personal care cleansing composition comprising naturally- obtained plant extracts. The patent is particularly obscure with many embodiments so as always, anyone interested is urged to study the entire publication.
The foaming element is an aqueous/alcoholic extraction of saponin material from Sapindus mukorossi and/or an extract of Camellia oleifera present in an amount ranging from 5-20%. The thickening agent is gum Arabic or guar gum, konjac gum, tragacanth gum, xanthan gum or carrageenan, or a mixture of two or more of these.
The humectant may be vegetable glycerin, sorbitol or honey. The natural preservative may be one or more plant extracts, and many are listed. An extract of Salix alba appears to be favoured in combination with propionic acid, but more complicated cocktails are described.
Detailed challenge testing showed that the preservative cocktail alone did not reduce the total microorganisms count below 1,000, but in combination with the Sapindus mukorossi extract the total microorganisms count was below ten, indicating a synergistic effect between the extract and the preservative cocktail (abstractor's note: the plant extract is in 50% aqueous/ethanol solution, so this would be very helpful).
Possible additives are numerous and include betaine, squalane, rhamnose and colloidal oatmeal. The patent is well illustrated with formulations for foaming compositions although most are for shampoo.
It is of value for the myriads of natural materials referenced and for the exhaustive testing the applicants undertook to support their application.